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The school, later called the Garden, accepted women and slaves. Fragments from his most important work, Peri physeos (On Nature), were recovered from the charred papyri of Herculaneum, buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.This, coupled with Epicurus' teachings concerning pleasure, led to public criticism of the school as a scene of debauchery. Johann Gutenberg - a craftsman from Mainz, Germany.Love and hate were considered principles of attraction and repulsion that alternately dominated the universe in a recurring cycle.Empedocles presented a kind of biological theory of natural selection in an imaginative poem, On Nature.He also played an importqant role in the development of the Western or Sicilian school of Greek medicine.He cured a plague at the Sicilian city of Selinus and claimed he was a god.Plato - Greek philosopher; pupil of Socrates; dealt with the nature of the universe; developed atomic theory of chemical change; ascribed geometric forms composed of bounding planes to the elements of earth, fire, air and water based upon their physical properties; held that elements could convert into one another through rearrangement of bounding planes; used deductive reasoning as a learning method.
Democritus of Abdera - Greek philosopher; pupil of Leucippus; developed atomic theory; elaborated idea that matter consisted of atoms having physical size and shape which constantly moved in a void and interacted in different ways; Greek word atoma means indivisible.Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all and said that the universe is ruled by logos; he always urged that close attention be given to the polarites and concealed structures emodied in language.